Indefinite Pronouns

nobody/no onenothingnowhere

We use indefinite pronouns without saying a specific person, or a thing or a place.

Anybody/anyone, anything and anywhere

We use anyone, anybody and anything to refer to both an open, unlimited set of things or people and specific things or people. We use them with a singular verb:

               I don’t know anyone who speaks Chinese.

                Can I do anything to help?

Put those anywhere you’d like.

Nobody/no one, nothing and nowhere

We use no one, nobody, nothing and nowhere to refer to an absence of people, things or places. We use them with a singular verb:

     Nobody ever goes to see her. She’s very lonely.

     You usually have to wait for a long time. Nothing happens quickly.

     There was nowhere to park the car.

    Nobody said anything.

Somebody/someone, something and somewhere

We use someone, somebody, something, somewhere in affirmative clauses and in questions expecting a particular answer. We can use them to refer to both general and specific people or things. We use them with a singular verb:

    I know someone who gives piano lessons. (a specific person)

   Somebody has obviously made a mistake. (general, we don’t know who)

   Can you hear something?

  I can’t find my keys. I must have put them somewhere.

Phrasal Verbs

Phrasal verbs usually have two words (a verb + a particle). Particles are small words (about, over, on, in) that look like prepositions. Unlike prepositions, however, they give a different meaning to the verb they combine with.Look out! There’s a dog in the road!
Phrasal v
I looked out the window.
Verb + Prepositional Phrase

Phrasal verbs are often used instead of single-word verbs that express the same meaningcall off: cancel go over: review
find out: discover hand in: submit
get ahead: succeed talk over: discuss
give up: quit
adapted from Grammar Explorer 2

There are two types of phrasal verbs:Transitive and Intransitive

Transitive Phrasal Verbs

They are followed by a direct object (DO) and most of them are separable.We called off the party.
_____________ DO
We called the party off.

Intransitive Phrasal Verbs

They are not followed by a direct object and cannot be separable.Our car broke down.
Nancy showed up.

Transitive Phrasal Verbs: Separable and Inseparable

SeparableJack looked up the word.

Jack looked the word up.
He looked it up.
InseparableJill thought about the essay.
She thought about it.
X She thought the essay about.
X She thought it about.
adapted from Grammar Explorer 2

Worksheets for some common phrasal verbs

Worksheet 1*An activity for Phrasal Verbs ‘break’ and ‘get’
Worksheet 2*An activity for phrasal verbs ‘come’‘cut’give’ and ‘fall’.
Worksheet 3*An activity for phrasal verbs ‘put’, ‘stand’, ‘make’, ‘go’, ‘turn’, ‘run’ and
Worksheet 4*An activity for phrasal verbs ‘take’ and ‘look’
Worksheet 5*Mixed phrasal verbs
answer key included

Vocabulary acquisition


Learning a language is a long process including vocabulary acquisition. It is an essential process to be able to make sentences, write smoothly, express your opinions better in writing and speaking. This can be overcome by following some strategies such as:

  • Keeping a diary : You will see how much you progress and how many words you add to your  vocabulary span. Keeping diary can be done in many ways such as

Or you can keep your vocabulary diary in more details as in :

It’s possible to add many columns in your diary.

  • Repetition: You can make a vocabulary treasure box by writing a word on one side of the small card next to the meaning, a picture or a sentence which could , something is going to remind it on the other side of the card. You can repeat these day by day
  • Category: This is another way to learn a bunch of words effectively by categorizing. This can be done through a mind map such as:

Categorising according to the features/definitions is another way to achieve this, for  example:

  • Practice: After you learn new vocabulary it is important to practice it. That means to use it in a daily conversation or in your writing. In this way, it will more effective you store the words in your memory span and recall them when needed.