Reported Speech

Different types of sentences

When we use reported speech, we either report:

  • Statements
  • Yes/No Questions
  • Requests/commands
  • Wh-questions

We change the tense accordingly.

For example:

Jane says, “I like apples”           Jane says that she likes apples

  Present Tense                         (Tense doesn’t change as it starts in the present.)  

 Jane said, “I liked the restaurant last night.”

   Past Tense

Jane said that she had liked the restaurant the previous night.       

 (Tense changed as it started in the past.)

As the tense changes, time expressions change in the reported speech.

direct speechindirect speech (reported speech)
‘I want to go to the party.’She said (that) she wanted to go to the party.
‘I’m making a cake now.’She said (that) she was making a cake then.
‘I drank some tea yesterday.’She said (that) she had drunk some tea.
‘I have finished my homework.’She said (that) she had finished her homework.
‘I had finished my homework.”She said (that) she had finished her homework.
‘I was doing my homework last night’ She said (that) she had been doing her homework.
‘I am going to watch TV.’She said (that) she was going to watch TV.
‘I will come to the party.’She said (that) she would come to the party.
‘I can climb the tree.’She said (that) she could climb the tree.
‘I have to call my mum.’She said (that) she had to call her mum.


Phrasal Verbs

Phrasal verbs usually have two words (a verb + a particle). Particles are small words (about, over, on, in) that look like prepositions. Unlike prepositions, however, they give a different meaning to the verb they combine with.Look out! There’s a dog in the road!
Phrasal v
I looked out the window.
Verb + Prepositional Phrase

Phrasal verbs are often used instead of single-word verbs that express the same meaningcall off: cancel go over: review
find out: discover hand in: submit
get ahead: succeed talk over: discuss
give up: quit
adapted from Grammar Explorer 2

There are two types of phrasal verbs:Transitive and Intransitive

Transitive Phrasal Verbs

They are followed by a direct object (DO) and most of them are separable.We called off the party.
_____________ DO
We called the party off.

Intransitive Phrasal Verbs

They are not followed by a direct object and cannot be separable.Our car broke down.
Nancy showed up.

Transitive Phrasal Verbs: Separable and Inseparable

SeparableJack looked up the word.

Jack looked the word up.
He looked it up.
InseparableJill thought about the essay.
She thought about it.
X She thought the essay about.
X She thought it about.
adapted from Grammar Explorer 2

Worksheets for some common phrasal verbs

Worksheet 1*An activity for Phrasal Verbs ‘break’ and ‘get’
Worksheet 2*An activity for phrasal verbs ‘come’‘cut’give’ and ‘fall’.
Worksheet 3*An activity for phrasal verbs ‘put’, ‘stand’, ‘make’, ‘go’, ‘turn’, ‘run’ and
Worksheet 4*An activity for phrasal verbs ‘take’ and ‘look’
Worksheet 5*Mixed phrasal verbs
answer key included

Vocabulary acquisition


Learning a language is a long process including vocabulary acquisition. It is an essential process to be able to make sentences, write smoothly, express your opinions better in writing and speaking. This can be overcome by following some strategies such as:

  • Keeping a diary : You will see how much you progress and how many words you add to your  vocabulary span. Keeping diary can be done in many ways such as

Or you can keep your vocabulary diary in more details as in :

It’s possible to add many columns in your diary.

  • Repetition: You can make a vocabulary treasure box by writing a word on one side of the small card next to the meaning, a picture or a sentence which could , something is going to remind it on the other side of the card. You can repeat these day by day
  • Category: This is another way to learn a bunch of words effectively by categorizing. This can be done through a mind map such as:

Categorising according to the features/definitions is another way to achieve this, for  example:

  • Practice: After you learn new vocabulary it is important to practice it. That means to use it in a daily conversation or in your writing. In this way, it will more effective you store the words in your memory span and recall them when needed.

Simple present tense


We use the simple present tense if the action is repeated, generalised and tells a fact.


we use the base of the verb to form a sentence in the simple present . For questions, we use do or does. To make negative we use don’t or doesn’t.

Positive: We eat a pizza every week.

Question: Do you get up early in the morning?

Does Jane drive to work every morniing?

Negative: I don’t like rain.

She doesn’t eat meat.

Note: don’t = do not and doesn’t = does not

The verbs after 3rd person singular get –s–es,  or –ies.

Peter talks too much.

Peter usually watches a horror film.

Sally cries whenever she watches a sad film.


The verbs ending with ch, sh, x or ss get –es.

watch-watchesfix- fixeswash-washesmiss – misses

The verbs ending with consonant + y get –ies but the verbs ending vowel + y get –s.

try – triescry – criesbutplay – plays

S. Present tense

Simple Past Tense


The simple past tense is used to describe a completed activity that started in the past and ended in the past. For example:

               Mary played the piano beautifully.

Verbs in past tense

Regular and irregular verbs.

  • Regular verbs in past tense

We add –ed or –d at the end of the verbs and the past form of the verbs is only used in positive sentences when we tell past events.

For example:

Jack visited his grandparents yesterday.

My mother baked a chocolate cake yesterday afternoon.

  • Irregular verbs in past tense

Irregular verbs are only used in positive sentences. Look at the following table and examples. You can see how the irregular verbs change in past tense.

For example:

eatateThe children ate their dinner quickly.
telltoldShe told a funny story.
sendsentMary sent her boss an email yesterday .

the list of irregular verbs